ANTIOXIDANT - A natural preservative, especially valuable in extending the life of oils and combined ingredients.

CELL REJUVENATION - Continual rebirth of cells within the stratum germinativum. Cell rejuvenation products can stimulate a more rapid regeneration of cells, allowing the skin to become healthy and more supple.

COLLAGEN - A tough, fibrous protein produced in the dermal layer of the skin. It helps the skin hold its shape while being elastic in its formation. It provides the main structural support of the dermis. Collagen protein occurs only in the dermis.

DEHYDRATION - Skin dehydration is the dryness that occurs in the outermost stratum corneum. It occurs because of insufficient moisture, or water, in the skin. Water, used with cream, prevents excessive loss of moisture.

ECCRINE SWEAT GLAND - The gland located beneath the dermis that secretes salty moisture through the pores to the surface of the skin.

ELASTIN - An elastic, fibrous protein produced in the dermis layer of the skin. It is produced in small amounts.

EMOLLIENTS - Agents that soften and smooth the skin. Emollients help make the skin feel softer and smoother, reducing roughness, cracking and irritation. They also help retard fine wrinkles that occur through aging. Emollients have high melting points and disappear rapidly into the surface of the skin and prevent the loss of natural moisture from the skin.

EMULSIFIERS - Agents used to assist and balance the ingredients during the production of emollients. Two or more nonmixable liquids are shaken together so thoroughly that they continue to appear to be homogenized. A good example is the emulsion of oil with water.

HUMECTANT - A substance that is capable of preserving the moisture content in the skin. It can attract and hold moisture.

HYDROPHILIC - A product capable of absorbing or blending with water. An ingredient that prevents physical or chemical change of the product, as well as being a sequestering and balancing agent.

MANTLE OF THE SKIN - A fine film of oil and moisture that forms and coats the surface of the skin, protecting the skin from dehydration and maintaining the skin’s natural pH level 4.5 to 5.5. pH SCALE A range from acidic “0” on the pH scale to alkaline “14.” A truly natural solution is neither acidic nor alkaline, such as water at “7.0.”

PORE - A surface opening at the end of the eccrine gland duct.

PROTEINS - Complex nitrogenous compounds formed in living organisms, consisting of amino acids bound together by peptide linkages. Proteins provide the essential constituent of every living cell in plants and animals.

SEBACEOUS GLAND - Gland located within the dermal layer of the skin, secreting oily sebum onto the skin’s surface.

STRATUMCORNEUM - The outermost layer of the epidermis. This is the layer where cell generation, or development of new cells, is located.

STRATUMGERMINATIVUM - The base of the epidermis. It is the cell birth layer and is composed of living cells. The new cells, formed through mitosis (cell division), begin to migrate upward to the surface of the skin, replacing the older cells that were shed.

STRATUMGRANULOSUM - The second layer of the epidermis, lying just beneath the stratum corneum, consisting of grainy cells that will develop into flattened and hardened cells, eventually moving up to the stratum corneum layer.

STRATUMSPINOSUM - The third layer of the epidermis, lying just beneath the stratum granulosum characterized by spiny-shaped cells that are still alive.